Monday, April 29, 2013

The 1st assault is Repulsed


The First Melee
The Confederation 12th, 13th and 94th battalion charged the hedge-line defended by the Royalist 36th Foot. All three attacking battalions were already showing signs of weakening cohesion, none the less they scrambled up to and onto the hedge- line with considerable impetus.
It was all the 36th could do to hold them on the hedgerow, it was literally every man for himself as they threw themselves at each other. In some places Confederation troops would make it across the hedgerow only to be killed on the other side, in other places the Royalists would themselves climb over the hedge in the madness to get at the enemy. There was no doubt however the higher morale of the defending troops was telling against the Confederate soldiers who were tired and not a little demoralised with the many losses they suffered in the advance

Confederation Infantry charge the Royalist 36th Foot.


The melee lasted for about 15 minutes and in that time though the 36th remained at the hedgerow, they literally ceased to exist as a fighting force, in the maddening frenzy of the fight for the hedgerow, the 36th lost 558 men, 167 dead, 235 wounded and 156 missing. For the Confederates despite attacking through a hail of musketry and attacking a defended position the units suffered less in casualties than the Royalists, however it was their low morale that decided the issue and they broke fleeing to the rear of the Confederation lines. There was no doubt they would reassemble, recover and perhaps return to the fray. Their losses in the advance and the melee for the hedgerow had been 101 dead, 141 wounded and 94 taken prisoner.
Closer to the road the 111th had come to a halt, refusing to advance it was all they could do to stand and fire at an enemy in the woods, an enemy they could not see, apart from the musket flashes and smoke from their muskets. On seeing their 3 sister battalions retreating for the rear they themselves fled, their total losses
25, dead 36 wounded and 24 prisoners.
All 4 confederate battalions had severe cohesion issues that would take several hours to recover from.

Already the next confederate brigade was moving forward to replace the unfortunate 2nd, it was the 3rd Brigade on loan from the Duke of Warwick's army.
The 3rd's commander Major General Sir Edward Saunders merely scoffed at the 2nd Brigade as its battalions fled past his 3rd, riding high on his horse he lambasted the 2nd for being cowards, he urged his own men not to learn anything from people who were born and bred in Norfolk,
“...men, they dont make real soldiers in Norfolk, more like good fisher folk and dung gatherers; so we have to show them how to behave as real soldiers.”

He ordered his 13th Light Infantry out front, he wasn’t going to make the same mistake that damned cocky General Clinton of the 2nd made....
“never heard the like of it,” he mused to himself, “advancing without his light troops, good god the man deserved a good trouncing.”

It would take his brigade at least 15 minutes to cover its position in the reserve area to the front line and be in a position where he could attack the hedge-line, as he advanced he noticed to his rear someone had finally the sense to send some artillery forward with him.

Meanwhile on the other flank the 12th Light Battalion was closing on the Light troops in the woods as well as spreading out before the battery. They had already engaged the battery with musketry but the fire was quite ineffective at long range so therefore the Light infantry darted and weaved their way forward, all the while being fired on by the Royalist troops in the woods the right of the battery, and as they closed on the guns they saw the gunners were finally alive to the threat closing in on them, the guns were pointing straight at the 12th, many men dove for the ground, others continued as they were trained.
The Brigade commander of the 6th brigade was pleased the way his Light Battalion had behaved, he had now decided that he needed to clear those woods beside the guns, so he sent his 35th Battalion forward in line, at least this way it would minimize his losses to fire and give his own men a greater fire effect when they let lose.

The 2nd Assault is about to begin.


The Royalist Position

General Preston was both horrified and proud of his 36th battalion, they had fought like lions and as they withdrew from the hedge row they crossed over the Claudia stream pushing ahead of them a large gathering of prisoners , the general rode up to them, cheering them on.
Damned good fight men, damned good fight, now take your selves back to the rear and rest up”.
He then noticed the Battalion commander riding up to him, Colonel Ramsey looked exhausted, covered in cuts,scrapes and with blood oozing from several small wounds.
Colonel, you and men behaved magnificently, you deserve a rest so take yourselves to the rear, we will not need your services any more this day.”
Colonel Ramsey looked own at his men as they straggled by, exhausted, wounded but each walking with obvious pride.
He turned to General Preston,
Rest be damned, we mauled those bastards that’s for sure, but they will be back and when they do, me and my lads will be there to meet the little cretins”.

General Preston nodded, “But Colonel your Battalion is no more, you have done very well and your men certainly do not need to prove anything to anyone”.

Look General Preston, my men will still be in the fight if you have to strap us to the bloody fence posts, now sir you can piss on your rest, just give us some food and more ammunition and I will bring my men back where they belong, in the fight”.

General Preston nodded, smiling to himself, he could not be more proud of his army than he was at this moment, but as he looked towards the enemy he saw a new Brigade marching towards them, and whoever was commanding them was not making the same mistake as the earlier commander, he had light troops out front and they could be a problem to his remaining battalion on the left, the 33rd Foot. What is more they were bringing up artillery and cavalry, this attack was going to be a totally different ball game, that was for sure.
He looked anxiously to the rear, hoping to see sight of General Graham and his men, but still no sign of them.
All he could do is wait and pray, pray that his men would hold and pray General Graham arrived soon.

The 2nd Assault on his line was about to begin.

The Battle commences - Part 1


The Battle of Luton – Command decisions.

When Lord Ashley's coach arrived at Icelton Farm as he dismounted he noticed Major General Marks amongst a throng of sub-ordinate commanders, clearly he was in the process of giving his commanders their orders. Lord Ashley stretched his aching back as he looked at his surroundings, the field headquarters had been setup in the courtyard of a rather stately farm, the buildings were more of a french Chateau style than the common English farm setup, the courtyard had an excellent view out over the fields of what would become a battlefield.

He made his way over to where the officers were standing, all either bowed or saluted him as he approached, Lord Ashley acknowledged the greetings, most of these men were old friends of his anyway so he was in very familiar company.
He walked over to where General Marks was standing, a map table beside him, the General clearly flustered by the arrival of his lord ship.
“Well General what have you found for me today huh”.
“Well my lord it appears we have run the fox to ground, out yonder we have a Brigade of Royalist Infantry and we believe a Brigade of Dragoons, some of these units are the same units that have been troubling us for the last few days”.

His lordship took a telescope from the map table and stepped out in front of the gathering, he stood for several moments surveying the field of battle.

“He noticed out to his left a long stretch of swampy river land, clearly this restricted the field of battle in that direction, on his right some distance away was a large dense woods, and more marshlands.

In front of him the Royalists had taken a position in two farms and several rows of hedges, their line was interspersed with woods.

“Well general it seems that whoever commands over there has picked a good position, we are rather hampered here and quite clearly cannot outflank him., I wonder why though they have decided to fight here, what do you think?

“Yes my lord they have an excellent position, they do have a problem though in that we outnumber them considerably, so I intend to roll down on the right flank, swamping them with numbers and then cross those streams and them push into their center once we have broken the enemy right flank.
As to why they are fighting here my lord I believe they have decided this is where they will make their stand before London, I believe what we have before us is an advance guard, and that some miles behind them is the remainder of the enemy. It therefore is imperative we break the enemy right flank very quickly before they can reinforce it with new troops.”

His lordship finished surveying the enemy and looked down at the map,
“Very good Simon, now pray continue with your briefing, I am sure time is of the essence.”

General Marks, nodded and then turned to the officer on his right General Geoffrey Clinton, commander of the 2nd Brigade.
“Geoffrey you have the honour of breaking the enemies left flank, because of the lack of room I suggest you form your battalions into columns and hit them as hard as you can. We don't have time or space to deploy the artillery and engage in a bombardment of their lines before we attack, time is against us and for the enemy, so you simply have to push through.
As far as I can see there are at most two Battalions opposing you and possibly some Light troops in the woods near the road, so there is nothing you cannot handle ehhhh”.

The Brigade commander nodded, “Aye sir we will push the bastards back, have no fear”.

“Dont just push them back Geoffery, break them; break them so damn hard they dont want to come back and annoy us again eeehh”

He turned to the General on his left, General Allan McCrombie commander of the 6th Brigade. It had been McCrombies Brigade that had lead the Confederation drive through Nene, Northampton and now Royston. The Brigade were weary, but keen for the fightm a chance to repay for the sufferings of constant ambushes and sneak attacks.
“Now Allan your task is to pin the enemy, if you can you may attack but do not do so at the expense of heavy losses. Unfortunately General, you have that damned artillery in their centre to contend with, but contend with it you must. I hope that the 2nd brigade will roll up their centre quickly and all you will need to do is push hard and then pursue, but I am mindful that they may need some persuasion to shift off their backsides eeeh.”
Finally he turned to Maj General Sir Edward Saunders commander of the 3rd Brigade which was on loan from the Duke of Warwick.
“Now Sir Edward, you will be our reserve, we may need all or some of units to plug gaps or reinforce success, so you must be prepared to move quickly, either as a whole brigade or to dispatch units as required, so keep your units in column if you please.”

General Marks then turned to Lord Ashley, “Is there something you wish to add or change my lord?”

His Lordship merely smiled, it was pleasing to see the young man finally making his mark, good to see such confidence in him as he commanded in his first major battle, of course Lord Ashley would always be close on hand to prevent disaster, but not to close he thought to himself.

“No,No General Marks you seem to have everything in hand, please continue.”

Royalist Command

Major General Preston was a very worried man, he had deployed his Brigade across the Luton – London road in the expectation of having to contend with a Confederation advance guard, he expected it to be most likely the size of his own, instead the Confederates were forming up opposite him with 3 times his strength, their entire army had closed up; and now it was simply too late for the Royalists to pull back.
He knew General Graham was coming up the London road behind him, but the last reports he had received was that at the earliest he would be here in a little over an hour, most likely longer.
As he surveyed the enemy, he wondered what would be left of his force if General Graham was in fact much longer than the hour.

On his left General Preston had placed the 36th Foot Battalion behind a long hedgerow, behind them was a small but deep and swift following stream, on the other side of that stream was the 33rd Foot, which was standing resolute with files open so when the 36th foot withdrew, they would pass through the 33rd and form up behind, once they had completed the transition of lines then the 33rd would close up and await the enemy.

In the centre General Preston deployed 4 companies of Light troops, they could fall back into the Hipsley farm complex which had been fortified since yesterday and was now a small fortress. The Light troops were expected to hold the centre for as long as possible.
Across the road from Hipsley farm and its defenders was the artillery battery, their task to fire and then move down the the road before the enemy gets to close to charge. They would unlimber on the other side of Claudia stream. To the right of the battery were another 3 companies of Light troops, in the woods north of Sluice farm, their task to protect the guns and then fall back into Sluice farm which had been fortified as well, General Preston was also prepared to push 3 or 4 companies of the 37th Foot in there as well, if needed and when the time came for the 37th foot to withdraw back over Claudia Stream.
Behind Sluice farm was the 34th Battalion, they were to support the 37th as well as the defence of Sluice farm, when it came time for them to withdraw General Preston hoped and prayed General Graham was here with the remainder of the army.

Finally General Preston had deployed the two Dragoon regiments on each flank, they were there to deal with any enemy breakthrough or in the last extreme to act as a rearguard giving his infantry a chance to get away.

As General Preston surveyed the enemy lines he was a now an even more worried man, opposite his left flank he had counted at least 8 enemy battalion standards and flags, two infantry brigades against 2 Battalions, this was turning into a nightmare. Over on his right there seemed to be a brigade forming up in line, so over there he could expect to be 4-5 Battalions against his two line; again very troublesome.

Then General Preston and possibly every living soul for miles around heard the Confederation trumpets and and drums beat, the battle had begun.

The first assault goes in


Immediately the Royalist artillery fired on the columns to their left, their target the 111th battalion suffered early hits.
As the other battalions of the Confederation 2nd Brigade came into musketry range the Royalist 36th Battalion opened a heavy rolling Platoon fire spread along the line. The musketry was very effective clear signs that the hours of training the Colonel had enforced on them was now paying off, sadly the losses which may have crippled one Battalion were to be spread across three. Colonel Ramsey of the 36th never faulted in riding along the line urging his men, damned proud of them he was and he noted that as the first enemy columns neared the hedge they were starting to lose their ridged formation; certainly a sign their cohesion ( unit discipline and morale) was weakening.
The 111th on the flank of the Brigade was taking marginally heavier losses because of  the artillery and then from the light troops in the woods, as they closed to charging distance of the woods, the 111th halted its morale having slumped due to the constant fire. Its Colonel raged and begged his men to move forward, but they halted and instead opened a desultory fire onto the Royalists light troops in the woods.
Further over on the Confederation left flank the Confederation 12th Light battalion closed in on the Light troops in the woods, their casualties so far were light and their return fire on the Royalist Light troops under cover in the woods was equally negligible.

General Preston rode behind his Royalist troops rather nervously, the wave of Confederate columns descending on his 36th battalion seemed like a wave of snakes weaving their way over the land.
Then came the bugle calls from the confederate lines, they were about to mount their first charge on his very thin line. Oddly of the 4 leading columns only 3 charged, the right hand one (111th) had halted and was simply standing in column and firing into the woods.
Now all he could do was wait and see how Colonel Ramsey and his 36th withstood this first test.





Sunday, April 28, 2013

Battle of Luton - Part 1 - Armies deploy

(This battle will be fought using me Kriegspiel battle system.)

Terrain features
The river marsh area to the confederation right (as you look at the map) is quite uncrossable to all units.
Off map to the left of the Confederation army is another marsh heavy wooded area.
The Claudia River (just behind the Royalist front line units, will disorganise Infantry and artillery  for 2 movement phases, cavalry 1 movement phase. All other streams disorganise for 1 movement phase.

All woods are considered light and offer a defence value of 1, hedges also have a DV 1.
Farm buildings have a DV of 2.
Hedges will prevent cavalry charges but Cavalry will be able to move across hedges (via gates, gaps etc) to move from one pasture to another.


The initial Deployment


The map above shows the leading units of the Confederation Army (6th Brigade) entering the battlefield.
The Royalist 6th Brigade is deployed in a line across the Hipsley - Sluice  farms area, their orders are  to slow the Confederation advance until General Graham arrives with the remainder of the army. He is about one hours march away
The Confederation Army is off map on the northern (Top) edge of the map.


The Confederation Army largely due to Lord Ashley's order that the cavalry screens and patrols remain close to the main body more or less stumbled on the Royalist forces in the Hipsley farm area, The initial deployment of the leading 6th Brigade was very cramped, it was therefore their task to create space on the battlefield by pushing back the Royalist forces deployed in and around Hipsley farm.

The 1st Part of the AAR will be posted here soon, it is currently being fought.



Saturday, April 27, 2013

The Royston campaign


Whilst in the south of England Lord Bedford was having mixed fortunes, having been repulsed at the battle of Twynford but now being reinforced by French regulars, in the north matters began in a much more sedate manner.
Lord Allen Ashley titled the Duke of Norfolk was gathering his forces and planning his campaign, with his usual meticulous care, his biggest issue had been not fighting the enemy but convincing his neighbour Lord Fraser into agreeing to a joint operation.
Unlike Lord Bedford who had a tendency to rush headlong into matters Lord Ashley preferred to think of himself as a patient and careful man, both in personal matters and in other small concerns like planning campaigns.
Finally however he had convinced Lord Fraser that the advantages of combining were to both their benefits, thus in early February the plans and preparations for the Northern campaign were prepared.
Initially they had argued over who should command, then they bickered over where the main thrust of their attack would come from and go too. Finally with great care and patient negotiating Lord Ashley had his way and through some deft negotiations he convinced Lord Fraser to allow him to command the main army, the army that would drive directly south from their lands into the heart of England, the capital city of London.

Naturally there was the matter of Royalist forces being between them and their objective but they had reasoned that if they had enough strength in their initial drive they could overwhelm any opposition.
Lord Ashley would lead the main Parliamentarian Army now styled the Parliamentarian Confederation Army (Confederates) directly south through the Royalist holdings of the Duchy of Nene, the County of Northampton and the County of Royston before lunging into the Royalist stronghold, the lands of the Duke of Essex, Lord Hackett.

While Lord Ashley drove south, on his right flank Lord Fraser would lead a smaller force as both a flank guard on the main drive but with eventual aim of joining for the attack on Essex. They had agreed that when both forces began their attack on Essex then they would operate under a joint command, Lord Fraser commanding one day, Lord Ashley the next.

Lord Ashley was obliged to leave 8 militia battalions and 2 artillery batteries to march behind the main army and be detached as garrisons in what was to be the conquered territories of Nene, Northampton and Royston, he didn’t want to weaken his main army by having to take regular troops out of the line as garrisons troops. These Militia forces would also deal with any hard core Royalist resistance by besieging them and allowing the main army to continue marching as quickly as possible south, the one vital aspect of their success was speed.
It was also vitally important that they engage Essex as quickly as possible before he could combine with other royalist forces to attack Lord Bedford in the south.

The order of battle that Lord Ashley march with was as follows:

Lord Ashley Commanding
General Malcolm Latimer (2IC)

2nd Brigade Stationed at Scole
4th Foot Regiment = 12th Foot, 13th Foot,
5th Foot regiment = 94th Foot, 111th Norfolk Foot
12th Light Infantry battalion


2nd Heavy Cavalry Brigade
2nd regiment of Horse (Carabineers)
3rd Regiment of Horse (Carabineers)

6th Brigade
12th Foot Regiment =35th Foot. 39th Foot
13th Foot regiment = 40th Foot,113th Foot
14th Light Infantry Battalion


4 Companies medium artillery - 1
1 company of Heavy artillery – 1

3rd Brigade – (Attached to the Norfolk Army from Warwicks army)
6th Foot regiment = 14th Foot, 15th Foot,
7th Foot Regiment = 16th Foot, 95th Foot
13th Light Infantry Battalion


Militia units to be used as garrisons in occupied territories or if events demand it as reinforcements for the main army.

6th Militia Brigade
4 Militia battalions
1 company of Medium Artillery

2nd Militia Brigade
4 Militia battalions
1 company of Light Artillery

Last Week of March.

The Confederation army marched from Kings Lynn in Norfolk and joined up with the 3rd Brigade from Warwick's Army near Guyhirn. The march through Nene and Northampton took just over a week and were quite uneventful., apart from an occasional sniping or a few belligerent locals one would hardly have noticed that the Confederation force was a conquering army, the march south seemed more like a royal progress.
It was of course expected that resistance would be light as neither Nene or Northampton had armies and because of this Lord Ashley had issued strict instructions that his army was to behave and not over react in retaliation to any civilian opposition. He demanded a firm but fair hand, as he saw it as being important that it appeared the Confederation Army was protecting the people of the former Royalist Counties from the ravages of war, not seeking revenge; it was a case of winning their hearts and minds.

The first signs of resistance came the moment they crossed the border into Royston, here they were opposed in ambushes by civilian bands reinforced by units of Royalist cavalry. The progress slowed and was marked by the burning of farms and villages as well as bodies hanging from trees along the road or in village squares. While Lord Ashley was prepared to take a light hand where there was no opposition, however when civilians attacked his men, then he allowed his men the opportunity for full revenge This had the one advantage of immediately quelling resistance in a given area but on the other hand because of this policy the county of Royston was to become a hotbed of Royalist sympathies.

Lord Ashley was surprised that apart from the occasional glimpse of royalist dragoons he had met no real opposition from the Royalist regular army.
He was beginning to think that perhaps it was as Lord Warwick had suggested, that the Royalists had rushed south to reinforce the Lyndhurst army or were afraid to move out of London because of the arrival of the French troops at Folkstone. If that was the case in another week or so the London forces would be squeezed in a vice like grip with armies marching from all directions on them.

The Royalist Headquarters
Lord Hackett had been in London when the news of the “new” Confederation launched their attacks on
both Nene and Northampton. There had been some suggestion that the enemy may stop on taking Northampton and consolidate their gains, perhaps reinforcing their army for a later push on London. Lord Hackett however based his own judgment on knowing Lord Ashley as well as he does and he did not see the Duke of Norfolk stopping until he sat on the throne in Whitehall Palace.
Lord Hackett told the assembled Parliament that this northern attack would be a precursor to the main thrust to liberate London, that Lord Ashley would not play second fiddle to any other Parliamentarian Lord or commander. This view was based on his former close association with Fraser when they jointly commanded the Council of Nobles, it was known that Fraser greatly valued his own self sense of personal prestige and his ego would simply not allow him to play second fiddle to anyone.

The Royalist Parliament had been assembled to discuss the victory at Twynford and how they should capitalise on it, then during the session three bad pieces of news brought to the house the awareness that the war was indeed escalating and rapidly.
The first piece of News was that the French were landing at Folkstone and then the next day the news of the attacks on Nene, then on the third day of the Parliamentarian session further news arrived of Confederation encroachments into Gloucester.

The situation for the Royalists was becoming perilous, first they had a stalemate with the Lyndhurst army, General Anders had sent his report to Parliament with the assessment that should he attack the enemy at Cadman's bridge the losses could likely be very heavy, thus at this stage he was busy rebuilding his army following his victory and awaiting further instructions.
The news about the French landings were of a great concern, it caused an immediate panic in the city of London when the news was spread. However not long after the initial panic the mood quickly transformed in a surge of patriotism, men emboldened with patriotic fervour and with great indignity rushed the recruitment parties when the realisation that England’s old enemy had invaded their own lands. Men by the thousand s suddenly volunteered to join, far more men than the Royalists could arm or train.

So with impasse in the south at Cadmans bridge, the French at Folkstone and now the Confederation army pouring south through Nene and Northampton the Royalist response had to be immediate and effective.
Lord Hackett voiced his opinion that the French alone would not be strong enough to take London, that with the Royal Guard of several battalions of veteran Infantry, Guard Cavalry along with the Force under General Abercrombie which consisted of 10 regular battalions, 5 Militia battalions and 2 cavalry regiments supported by artillery would be more than adequate to hold London, perhaps even attack the French. Meanwhile his own forces under General Ernest Graham would deal with Lord Ashley to the north.

The third and final day (2nd week of March) of the Royal Parliament came with the news that yet another Confederation army under Lord Warwick had just invaded the Duke of Gloucester's lands, it was decided for now their was little they could do for Gloucester, as the Royalists first had to create some breathing space on one of the other fronts. Gloucester would have to do all he could to slow Warwick's advance, while Lord Hackett's army under General Graham dealt with Lord Ashley's force coming south through Nene.

General Graham and the Midland Royalist Army.

General Graham an old friend of Lord Hackett was a Scotsman of great military experience in Europe he had fought initially with the Russians and later with the Prussians against the French until wounded in battle, he had taken the chance to return home and recover his health. Whilst back in England the new English Civil had broken out and he had been convinced by Lord Hackett to join the Royalists and command Hackett's own forces.

General Grahams Army

5th Brigade – Stationed in Bedford
12th Foot Regiment = 10th Foot, 11th Foot
13th Foot Regiment = 93rd Foot, 33rd Foot

6th Brigade – Stationed in Oxford
14th Foot Regiment = 36th foot, 33rd Foot
15th Foot Regiment = 36th foot, 34th Foot,
2nd Light Infantry Battalion (previously 44th Foot)


4th Dragoon Brigade – Stationed in Bedford
2nd Dragoon Regiment
3rd Dragoon Regiment

3rd Light Horse Cavalry Brigade – Stationed in Oxford
1st Regiment of Horse (Blue)
18th Light Horse Regiment

3 Companies of Medium Artillery –


General Graham found that on taking command of Hackett's army that they were deployed all over Essex with some forces even as far south as London, he was just finalising his plans to unite the army when he was told of the Confederation attacks in Nene and later in Northampton.
He had issued orders for an immediate concentration of the army on the Royston - Essex border at Aylesbury, this concentration was in progress when reports came in to his headquarters that the Confederation army was moving much faster than expected and were now preparing to invade Royston.
General Graham realised that without delaying the Confederate army they would be upon him before his own concentration was complete, so he had sent out his two Dragoon regiments and the 6th Infantry brigade to slow the enemy down. The command of this advance guard was given to Major General Albert Preston a protege of Lord Hackett's and though young he was already a veteran of the Indian wars in America, thus the ideal man to command a force that was required to fight by ambuscade and use delaying tactics.

His orders were relatively simple, “Slow the enemy down and avoid a pitched battle”, he was to gain time so General Graham could complete his concentration and join him in a little over a week or so.

On his arrival in Royston Maj General Preston learnt of Confederation reprisals on the some of the smaller farming communities where Royalist sympathisers had ambushed several patrols of Confederate troops, in retaliation the Confederates had burnt farms, destroyed crops and executed several people. These acts of reprisals gained General Preston two advantages, first there was now an abundance of intelligence on the movements of the enemy, secondly and more importantly the enemy had halted just south of Luton to hunt down “Royalist murdering bands”.
Using bands of Royalist irregulars supported by his regular cavalry General Preston had set down to a routine of ambushing and raiding, a policy that was militarily succesfully but the price for that success was paid in the blood of Royalist civilian sympathisers.
As a result of recent executions which had taken place in Luton, scores of Royalist patriots and sympathisers had been rounded up and killed, their homes razed to the ground. When the Confederate Commander Lord Ashley learnt of these reprisals and the delay they had incurred he was beside himself with fury, he immediately sacked his advance guard commander and ordered the new commander Major General Simon Marks to assume the advance and do not stop for retaliations, the need for retaliation can be dealt with by the following Militia forces.
However on renewing the advance the Confederate forces were opposed by a new enemy, the advance was being opposed by Royalist regular troops and whoever was commanding them was displaying considerable skill in the art of ambush and delay.


General Preston was quite happy with the efforts of his small command, in fact most of the fighting had been done simply using the dragoons who would lay in ambush in the lanes and side roads firing on the enemy advance and then withdrawing, then at night raiding the baggage train to the rear or attacking pickets and guards around the army along the route of advance. Combined with this was the increasing animosity of the local people against the Confederates and many formed themselves into new irregular bands to make their own attacks and raids. General Preston had tried to convince them to leave the military matters to his own command, but following the massacres of Patriots and sympathisers in Luton there was no convincing the local population that they should simply act as informers and spies; they demanded blood and nightly they achieved the goals, again the price was the death of more civilians.
The new Confederate advance command commander was being hampered by the same issues the previous commander had suffered from, despite his urgings and orders all too frequently the Confederate patrols would drag some local individual and execute them in reprisal for a previous night raid. His advance was now down to a matter of a few miles a day, often he would receive reports of a royalist army ahead, but patrols sent out returned with no information or had been ambushed along the way.
General Marks decided the best policy was simply to push his advance guard force down the Luton – London road, keeping the patrols close enough for support but far enough out to warn of ambushes.
It seemed to the General that this new Policy was working, the advance guard started moving, and despite isolated skirmishes the enemy irregulars were becoming fewer, even Lord Ashley had sent along a word of encouragement now that his army was finally gaining speed at a much more acceptable rate once again, but of course all that came to nought when the advance guard force stumbled onto the Royalist Force under General Preston, the contact came in a area of farms, light woods, rivers and of course hedgerows.
General Preston knew the Confederates were coming, he was however rather surprised just how quickly they had reached his position near Beasley Farm. General Preston had been ordered by General Graham to assume a defensive position that offered his out-numbered force a reasonable chance of success, to young General Preston, this area was not only the best available, but given the two distances between Lord Ashley's Confederation main army and General Graham's Royalist force, it placed General Preston and his advance guard squarely in the middle, with little or no room to move.

The Battle of Luton as it was to become known was in fact fought twenty miles or so south of Luton.
It would begin as a clash between two advance guards but would escalate as the two armies marched onto the scene.

Terrain Map for the battle of Luton

The above map is the general area of the battle, to follow in the next few postings will be the AAR and maps for this very important clash.

Sunday, April 21, 2013

Armies begin to march



Even to those who thought they knew him Lord Bedford the leader of the Parliamentarian forces had taken the news of the battle of Twynford with remarkable equanimity. Most had expected another one of his well known temper outbursts, but as he read the initial dispatches from Colonel Sorenson and the later ones from General Ferguson he had merely nodded to himself whilst reading them.
But then of course they his friends, allies and associates did not know what he knew, the French were coming and above all else that was what mattered.

When England divided into armed camps and both sides began rapidly recruiting and arming, Lord Bedford had daily expected the Royalists to attack his lands, as each day passed he started to feel a little more secure, but then he began to receive intelligence from both agents in London to the north and Lyndhurst further to the West that the Royalists were gathering regular army troops. To Lord Bedford it meant a royalist attack was imminent, and at that stage there was no news of the French, so he gambled and decided on a pre-emptive strike. Its goal was to at least cause the Royalists to hesitate thus gaining time, but more optimistically he hoped the Parliamentarians may win and gain the first and important win of the war, a win that if nothing else worked would he hope gain French support.

So he had gambled on Sir Ferguson being his man in the west, mainly because Ferguson had the lands around Romney which was a neighbouring county of Lyndhurst. He regarded Ferguson as a wild card in his mix of Allies, he was arrogant, ambitious, greedy and utterly ruthless; but he was no general of armies. So if he had to promote Sir Ferguson to general he had to ensure he had a professional soldier to advise him, and Lord Bedford had such a man in Colonel Sorenson. He was an experienced officer, had fought in Europe both with the Dutch and French, he even had fought alongside General Leopold Anders the new Commander of the Royalist forces in Lyndhurst; so there was no doubt he was the man to ensure Ferguson didn’t make a mess of things.

His instructions to Colonel Sorenson had been to ensure Ferguson didn’t lose the war in a day, he was to advise and if Sir Ferguson seemed to be incapable of commanding, he was to be removed and Sorenson assume the command.
As it turned out the initial reports that came back from Sorenson was that General Ferguson was doing quite a good job of organising his small army, but then a few weeks later he received a letter from Sir Ferguson, now General Ferguson that he was departing Romney and would be moving via Eling and taking Lyndhurst by the following evening. He also received a missive from Colonel Sorenson that General Ferguson was now taking his job as commander of the army in a very light manner, he spent most of his time drinking and womanising and left running and organising his army to his deputy, Sorenson also claimed that general Ferguson was disregarding all his advise and continuing to run the army in his own haphazard manner.
Bedford received the news of the Houndsdown fiasco with some concern, Sorenson reported the drunken orgy the General organised the night before the battle, the lack of reconnaissance and the needless intention of battering his inexperienced army against well dug in Royalist forces. That report was followed by another a day or so later in which Sorenson reported that he had finally convinced the General about the futility of trying to attack a enemy in prepared defensive positions, that they should withdraw, mask Eling and swing north via Cadmans bridge and advance on Lyndhurst on more open country, a plan ironically which Sorenson had suggested in the first place.
He read General Ferguson’s report which arrived two days later with a wry smile, in his report the General indicated he had prevented the Royalists from capturing Eling and advancing, that even now he was maneuvering his army north to Cadmans bridge outflank the Royalists.

All this was to some amusement to Lord Bedford because while the armies on the Lyndhurst border were squabbling and counter marching events elsewhere were unfolding. He received news from Cardinal Cartwright his envoy in France.
The French King had been persuaded by his First Minister Cardinal de Fleury to send an initial force of two brigades of troops to England, he had further advised the they should move urgently while the Royal navy was still recovering from its previous state of near mutiny.

Furthermore Lord Bedford heard news of events that were afoot in Northern England. The Royalist enclave counties of The Duchy of Nene and the County of Northampton had been taken unopposed by forces under the Duke of Norfolk. Of course Lord Bedford smiled to himself, typical that damned Norfolk would claim the first Parliamentary victory especially considering that both Nene and Northampton were too small to have raised any troops to oppose him.
Further news was that Norfolk was now marching on the County of Royston, he wondered about the wisdom of that because Royston was bordered by two of the strongest Royalist counties in the country, those of Essex and Gloucester. He had written to Norfolk advising him to wait until the French arrived and if they did he would send some French reinforcements north to assist, but he had not heard word since then.

However while Norfolk was marching in the north, the Battle of Twynford had been fought and lost. Though Bedford was quickly proclaiming the battle was a draw and had been merely an exercise in testing his forces, now both the royalist Forces under general Anders and the Parliamentary Romney Army under Ferguson were eying each other over Cadmans bridge. A situation that pleased Bedford immensely, especially when word had arrived that the first French troops had landed at Folkstone. It meant that Ferguson was keeping the Royalist Lyndhurst army well to the west while the French disembarked, his only worry was what was the Royalist army of Berkshire doing in London, rumours suggested it was either marching north to reinforce Essex in his campaign against Norfolk or that he would march south against Bedford himself, either way he needed those French troops unloaded quickly.

Armies gathering as of 1st April


Saturday, April 20, 2013

The lessons a young King must learn


As news of the Royalist victory spread throughout the country the news as one would expect varied according to ones political sympathies. In the eyes of the Royalists it was one of the greatest victories of all time, to a Parliamentarian it was merely a skirmish, a testing of the resolve for both sides.

In London, Whitehall Palace was a buzz with excitement following the news of the victory, courtiers and palace lackeys alike all claiming to know of some aspect of the battle that others didn’t. Perhaps it was they knew General Anders personally, or they had heard from their brother who was a officer of the valiant 104th. That battalion alone was already reaching legendary status for their Spartan like defense of the St Johns wood.

For those in the know however, the battle heralded by a few as one of England’s finest was in fact a bloody draw. When the facts were considered the Royalist army had barely held its own and it was indeed fortunate to have come away intact.

The Prime Minister Sir Edward Anders had read the report from his brother Sir Leopold the commander of the Royalist forces at the battle, Sir Leopold was open and honest about his own failings and the problems the Royalists faced but more importantly he was sending a warning to King James's Government that future battles are likely to be costly and ruinous if Twynford was any indicator.

Sir Edward walked from his office along the corridors of the palace making his way to the Kings audience chamber, officially this room was where his majesty greeted dignitaries, diplomats and the like, but under King James the room had become sort of informal haunt for everyone of James favourites; some of whom Sir Edward seriously disapproved off.
Outside the chambers were stationed two of the Kings Guard as well as their commander General James Anders, James being Edwards son.
It was clear that James was quite agitated and as soon as he saw his father approaching James made his way quickly towards him, presumably to ensure he was out of hearing range of the two guards.

Edward smiled at his son, but the smile slowly disappeared as he he could see his son was quite angry.
“Good Grief James, you look decidedly beside your self at the moment, what on earth is the problem?”

“Its the King father, he is becoming impossible to work with and I am sick and tired of being a palace lackey, I want out of here; for gods sake get me a field command father and quickly.”

Edward quickly checked that no-one was near and taking his son by the elbow he lead him to an alcove in the corridor.

“Now James tell me what has happened?”

“Oh several things father, first of all I have been told by his majesty that I must wait out in the corridor in case he needs messages sent, me his Commander of the Guard becoming a message dispatcher, and now he is having a drunken revelry with his new friends in the audience chamber. One of whom I challenged because he had a sword, despite the fact I had ordered that no one may carry weapons in his majesty's presence unless they were his guard. James told me that he decided it was alright for his friends to remain armed, so what the hell is the use of me trying to protect him when he dismisses everything I do or say. And of course he then delegates me to wait outside until he is ready to employ me.
For gods sake father I am sick of it, if you dont find me a position in the army I will resign and return home, I have far better things to do there rather than play lackey to a jumped up boy who has overnight become King and has no idea as to behave as one. Lately to him, every day is a party with his rowdy friends.”

Edward nodded, he understood his son's predicament and he too had become concerned over the young Kings behaviour, it was coming to a time when there would need to be a readjustment in the Kings behaviour. If there wasn’t and word got out of the palace about the Kings behaviour then the people of London and England may see there is little to gain in fighting a war for a King that behaves no better than the Lords did before him.

“James you must have patience, I will talk to the King and make him understand he needs to change things, but son whether he knows it or not he needs you, we all need you; but more importantly we need you here close to him.”

“Well regardless of whether he needs me or not father, if things don’t change I will resign, so you do your best but be warned I am set in my mind to leave his service if he continues the way he has done so far.”

Edward nodded, realising that matters were quickly coming to a head and if he didn’t make the King see the error in his ways everything that Edward, Leopold and the Young Kings mother Sophia had done would soon be undone.
“Have you seen Lady Margret?” Edward asked.

His son frowned for a moment, “Yes she stormed out of chamber some time ago and she did not look happy”.
“Alright James I would ask you do me one more thing, please send someone to ask Sophia if she would come here and James, I think it best if you get some more guards, we may need them.”

Edward made his way to the chambers he paused a moment before opening the door, he then opened and walked in, the chambers normally a room of sombre occasions was instead one of hilarity noise and colour. There were people everywhere, some clearly drunk, some singing and every seemingly talking at the same time.

One young man bumped into Edward and yelled at him
“Get out of my way you damned old buffoon”. The younger man then realised he was abusing the Prime Minister and quickly retreated, Edward recognised him as the son of Lord Belmont.

Edward made his way through he throng of people it seemed that was being jostled and bumped by everyone in the room as he made his way forward, finally he caught sight of King James sitting at a table with a host of young ladies drooling over it and him. Beside the King was a smart well dressed young man, he was obviously the man his son had issues with as he wore a dress sword to his side, Edward could not recall seeing him before but decided he should remain and listen.
It seemed the discussion was on the recent Battle of Tywnford, so with more than a little interest Edward remained hidden amongst the crowd around the table, oddly it did not seem to occur to the masses intent on listening to the young man that the Prime Minister was in their midst.

The King enjoys his new friends


“Of course you know, Sire”, the young man continued his discussion “I am sure General Leopold was a capable General in his day, but sadly the pike and sword are no longer the weapons of choice, why I believe I could have fought that battle to a better conclusion, in fact I know I could have done so”.

James seemed to be more engrossed on the bosom of a young lady who appeared to be more out of her dress than in it, she was was leaning over the table facing him clearly drunk.
James merely nodded, almost transfixed on the view before him,
“Indeed Rodney” James asked “just how would you have fought the battle.”

“Flanking Sire. That is how the General should have fought this battle, outflanked em sire. Sadly though the older generals of today have no perception in this regard, its all up and at them, frontal attacks don’t you know.”

James smiled at the young lady, drawing his eyes momentarily away from the young ladies rather obvious assets as he sipped his goblet of wine.
“Marjorie my dear I do think we need you around the palace much more.”
“Why sire what could little old me do in a place like this?” she asked in a drunken sultry manner.
“Oh my dear we would find a position for you” he added, the whole group around the young King laughed.
“But sire are you not already engaged to Lady Margret, I fear she would not have the likes of me in your errrr employ sire, though I do feel I could satisfy you any position you found me.” she purred.

James smiled, “Well my dear I may be betrothed to the Lady Margret, but a King has certain advantages” and with a smile and a wink he added “and dare I say Marjorie, a King has certain needs”.

The young man clearly irritated by Marjorie taking all the Kings attention continued with his criticisms of the battle.
“Sire the trouble with the army these days is the officers are too old and fight battles of yesterday, Are you aware sire that I have written a pamphlet on how modern warfare should be fought .”

The King looked up from Marjorie, taking a goblet from her hands he drank the wine and looked at young Rodney.
“A pamphlet you say Rodney, now that is interesting; you must allow me to read it sometime.”

“Oh indeed sire, you must read and I am sure you will find it instructive.”
Another young man moved around the back of the King, glass of wine in his hand, spilling some of it down his front as he staggered.

“Sire why dont you make Rodney, the General in charge of your army, he knows more about fighting than any ten of your generals.”

The man drank the remainder of the glass, obviously to the relief of those around him for they feared they would also soon be wearing the contents. He leaned forward staggering against the King, placing his glass on the table he all of a sudden had the same view of Marjorie that the King had been enjoying of late, the young man looked up at her.
“My god Marjorie, you have grown somewhat since I tumbled you all those years ago”.

James lost interest in Marjorie at that remark, and if looks could have killed the looks the young man received from Marjorie would have had him dead at that instant.
The young drunken man staggered to his feet, looking across the table at all the young people about, he saw the head of an elderly man behind the others,
“Ye gods, there is an old man in the room, sire I believe your butler must have wandered in.”

James tried to see the old man but couldn’t for the mass of people around him, he was tiring of the drunken mob anyway so he stood up, and then saw the look on his uncles face.

Edward turned from the crowd and made his way to the door as he did so the gathering were jeering at the butler running for the door, opening it he saw his son who was standing there with half a dozen guardsman, along side them was Sophia the Kings mother, lady Margret and rather surprisingly Lord Hackett, Margret’s father and the most prominent lord supporting the King.
“General” Edward said in a clear voice, “ clear this room of this riff raff. And that young man wearing the sword he is to be shown the door and never permitted to enter the Palace again.

General James smiled and followed by his guardsman entered the room and began to rather unceremoniously clear the party goers out.

The young King stormed into the centre of the room, and yelled
“Stop this, I demand you stop this, these people are my friends and here and they remain here because I want them too.”

Edward looked at his nephew and then nodded to the guardsmen to continue to remove them, again James yelled at the Guardsmen, you will stop this and leave the room, I will deal with you all later; I am your King.'

Lord Hackett walked in and stood beside Edward.
“Sire if you wish your drunken friends can remain, then they will be able to regale what is about to be said to their friends in all the taverns of London, so if it is your wish they should stay; then so be it.”

Lord Hackett paused for a few moments looked at Edward and then to his daughter and then walked up to James.
He pointed to the throne chair at the end of the room,
“If you think that chair over there makes you a king, then lad I am sorry for you. There is more to Kingship than than being popular with societies drunkards and whores. Do you not realise what has happened to make you King, High born people have sacrificed positions, wealth and favours to make you king, poor people, people you have never met have died on the field of battle to make you King. Your own family have risked all to make you King, your own Uncle and your cousin here, lost a son and brother to make you king, in all of that I ask you what have you done to be a King.
You have done nothing, you have humiliated my daughter and because of that you have humiliated me, you have stood here listening to that young fool over there slander your own step father and god only knows how your uncle and cousin feel at the moment when they look upon what they have lost to put you in a wooden chair so you could make fools of them.
James, if you think I will continue to support you in making fools of us all, think again, at a word I can withdraw my support and by my lead I am sure many other lords supporting you will do so as well. So by all means James, keep your friends here but beware when the parliamentary mob pour through that door there, the only thing between you and them will be this drunken mob, so you decide wisely, and if we are to stay then you will need to change, if they are to stay then I pray for your soul.”

The effects of the wine suddenly seemed to have gone from the young King, he looked at Lord Hackett, then to his Uncle and his mother, then he nodded to his cousin the commander of the Guard.
“Clear them out” the King he said rather shakily.

As the guardsmen cleared the room, King James made his way back to the table, a table awash with wine and food.
He sat down head in his hands.

Edward came up to him and pulled up a chair near him as did his mother,
“James you were not born a King nor born into a world of Royalty, because of that all of this is new and confusing. One simple truth in being King is as I have told you before simply find your power base and make it work for you.
We in this room are your power base and we want you to succeed, but there will always be people like those you have just sent away hovering in the outskirts of the court. They are leeches James, they will suck the life out of your rule as much as they will from your power-base. They have no other interest other than their own profit and gain, so for gods sake James realise to be King does not mean everyone is or should be your friend”.

James looked up at his uncle, then to his mother and he saw the tears in her eyes,
“I am sorry, I know I have acted like a fool, but you know I never asked to be a King, I was happy back home in Germany, but all of a sudden one day people started telling me I was to be King of England. You know, not one of you bothered to ask what I wanted, but I was caught up in this thing, this energy that everyone created that I should be King. Yes I believed you all, that my right is to be king, but then it seems to have to occurred to me that in being King I should have certain privileges and part of those privileges was having friends.”
He looked up at Margret, “You know you all were born to your stations in life, you were raised up knowing what was expected and what was not, who was acceptable and those that were not, in a matter of a few months I have tried to learn what has taken all you all your lives to learn and understand.
But the one thing I have always known is the people I love, I love them because they are important to me as people, not because of what station they held in life.”
He stood and walked over to his mother, taking her hand.
“Mother I have been an idiot, and I will probably continue to be an idiot, but I will promise to try and not be such a big one in the future.”
He turned to Margret, “To you I owe the biggest apology for dishonouring you earlier today, that was unforgivable but never the less I do ask for you forgiveness Margret.”
Margret smiled at him, then James turned to Edward
“Uncle I am so sorry for so many things, for the things I said in here today, for the things I allowed to be said and whether you believe it or not I do realise what you have given up and lost to help me be King.”

For a moment the young monarch paused and then he walked over to Lord Hackett,
“My lord, you were right in all the things you have said, but do know this I have never taken your support as a right, even in my blindness and stupid behaviour I have known I owe you much. I love your daughter not because of your support but for the woman she is, I honour you however not for what you have done for me, nor for what you can do for me, I honour you because you believed in me from the outset.” He then smiled as he turned back looking at Margret
“But of course my Lord our relationship works both ways does it not, I take that tiresome daughter off your hands and make her a Queen do I not.”
Lord Hackett smiled, “Indeed you do sire, indeed you do; and please do it soon before the burden of controlling her becomes unbearable.”

Finally he walked over to his cousin,
“You my friend I apologise to most of all, because you have had to put up with my overbearing ways for the last month or so, what can I do to make it up to you Cousin”.

In an instant James said “Give me a field command”.
Both Edward and Lord Hackett said almost as one, “No not that”.

The King turned and walked back to the table, he looked at his cousin then to Edward,
“No James I cannot give you a field command just yet, as you have seen I need a strong right hand man beside me, someone who has nothing to gain by staying with me and dear cousin you are that poor object. But in return I promise never to take you for granted anymore and should this accursed war drag on then indeed I will look to giving you a field command if you can find me a new right hand man”.

The King then walked to the throne, sat down and looked to Edward who stood there amongst the others, smiling and thankful that a near crisis had been averted.
“Now my dear Prime Minister, is it business as usual that brought you to this room, what is it you have come to see me about?”

For a moment Edward had forgotten what it was he was coming to see the King over, but then he remembered the message in the folder in his hands,

“Oh indeed sire I had forgotten as it were, well considering what has just transpired it is almost nothing Sire, merely that the French have landed”.

Tuesday, April 16, 2013

The Battle for St Johns Farm

This Battle was fought using my new Kriegspiel rules.


Following the debacle at Handsdown, the Southern Parliamentary Army under command of General Ferguson, withdrew from Eling and moved north.

As he rode at the head of his army General Ferguson was going over in his mind the mistakes he had learnt so far, significantly the main one was the most obvious; read maps properly and understand that when it has a river on it, it probably means there is in fact a river there, when they say marsh and ridges exist then its probably a good chance are all there. Prior to this enlightening discovery Ferguson had little interest in the details on maps, they were after all merely instruments in which he would look at to learn how to get to point A from point B.
He had looked at the map of Lyndhurst country and the shortest route to the capital was via Houndsdown ridge, so to him that was the obvious. He has since learnt that the shortest route was often militarily the hardest, and he only discovered this revelation after he had deployed on the Handsdown - Lyndhurst road to find he was constrained in movements on his flanks by rivers and marshes and before him dominating the terrain was Handsdown ridge itself. If he as the General of his army had bothered to study the map as a instrument of war, and not merely a tourist guide he would have seen those terrain features had been there all the time, they were a warning against the stupidity of amateur generals he supposed.
Secondly he learnt not to delegate everything, he just assumed that as commander of a army all he had to do was point and everyone went where he wanted them to go, and did all the mundane things that he obviously had over looked.

The General had mentally turned over all the reasons for his failure at Handsdown as his army slowly marched away from the Handsdown – Eling Area, they had moved north towards Little Testewood and then he would strike west making for the Cadman bridge. This time he was being far more cautious for he had ordered his two Cavalry regiments to ride ahead for the bridge and secure a good bridgehead.

While he rode, it must have seemed to his staff and commanders that their General was hatching a grand scheme, whereas in fact he was going over and over again the mistakes he had made and lessons learnt. It was as if by this self berating himself he could exorcise the demons that plagued him at Handsdown.
Handsdown had been a lesson well learnt, no doubt about that; he was lucky to get away with so many errors without being handed his backside by the Royalists. First deploying an army on a narrow front with all the advantages to the defender was absolutely bloody ridiculous and stupid, it happened because he was too inexperienced as an army commander, he underestimated the Royalists and he was too lazy to check on details. A drunken party the night before a battle and most likely the damned lady he bedded had been a bloody Royalist spy. These things he understood now and he could chide himself over them but he would bloody well murder anyone if they so much as whispered his faults publicly. He had taken all the lessons on board and he was determined he would learn more, as long he could avoid learning by making bloody stupid mistakes. One thing for sure, he would never confess his inexperience to anyone, in fact he had already written his report to Lord Bedford indicating he had foiled a Royalist drive on Eling, that he had held them of despite being out numbered and that now he was marching to out maneuver the Royalists.

General Ferguson looked to his left where his deputy Colonel Sorenson rode beside him, Sorenson was a professional soldier, and he looked every part the military professional man, something that angered the General a great deal. There was no doubt General Ferguson reasoned to himself, Sorenson was a good Chief of Staff and deputy, but there was also the fact that he hated the Colonel. Colonel Sorenson was Lord Bedford's man, he had been hoisted on him by his Lordship so he could hardly have refused, but the General was sure every move he made and every word he muttered was being reported back to his lordship and that included his mistakes. Somewhere along the way Colonel Sorenson would have to disappear, no doubt about that, but right now he needed the man and his abilities.

There was no doubt the Colonel knew his business, it had been the Colonels idea to deceive the Royalists that he had withdrawn from Eling by leaving three combat ineffective newly raised militia battalions there. The Militia men had kept dummy camp fires burning day and night, they were dressed in Uniforms of regular soldiers they appeared on patrols and moved around keeping the impression the Parliamentary army was still present and it appears the Colonel's deception had worked.

The Royalists had been reported still in position a day later, so he had at least gained a days march on bloody General Anders and his Royalists.

Now his own army had just finished crossing the Winders ridge and was a mile or so from Cadmans bridge, the Cavalry up ahead reported no sign of the enemy. It had to remain like that for just another 4-5 hours, enough time to get his army across Cadmans bridge, then he would strike south west straight for Lyndhurst town.


General Leopold Anders was another General that fumed about errors, last night his men had finally captured 3 prisoners and they all confirmed that the Parliamentarians had gone, they had marched north but none of the prisoners were certain where the enemy army was marching too.
General Anders was angry at himself that he should have been more aware, he had convinced himself into believing Ferguson wouldn’t or couldn't maneuver his army; he would more likely use it as a bludgeon rather than a rapier. Now he had been proved wrong and while the Royalists sat waiting for an attack that never came general Ferguson and his army were likely swanning around in northern Lyndhurst.
However despite this setback General Anders intuitively knew where they were going, they were heading for Lyndhurst once again, however this time from the north and the only viable crossing was at Cadmans bridge. Because of their very cunning deception plan and his own arrogance the Parliamentarians had gained at least a days march on him, the only advantage he had, his route north was shorter than that taken by the Parliamentarians.

Then this morning another break of good luck as his army marched back through Lyndhurst township, he heard the first rumours that Parliamentarian Cavalry had been seen at Cadmans bridge.
That meant they were already likely over the river, and now he had to guess where the Parliamentarians army going, in truth that was not too difficult because logic said they would travel southwest to Lyndhurst, but could equally there was a remote possibility they could be making for Mineftead as that is where a new large arms factory had just been completed., so if Mineftead was the objective it was quicker via Stony cross on the northern road, if Lyndhurst was the target then the road that ran southwest from Cadmans bridge would be the obvious route.

The General instinctively knew that the Parliamentarians would try for Lyndhurst first, he based his opinion simply on the fact he knew Ferguson and Lyndhurst had become a fixation to the man. He would no doubt take the arms factory at Mineftead once he had defeated the Royalist army, so General Anders gambled on logic and set his army on the Lyndhurst – Cadman's Bridge road.

It was late in the afternoon when the reports began coming in from the 3rd Dragoons that the enemy army was approaching, so quickly looking at his present position both physically and on the map he decided to accept battle where he was, the terrain offered some interesting features and the Parliamentarians had to fight him to get to Lyndhurst, as he glanced down at the map in his hands he noted the map said the small Hamlet just ahead was Twynford.

Overnight the Parliamentary army arrived and began to deploy opposite the Royalists, both sides preparing for the first battle of the new civil war on the morrow.

The Battle.



Overnight General Anders had ensured his men were as prepared as they could be, on his right flank he had a large collection of farm buildings known as St Johns farm prepared as a defensive position. The farm itself was embedded in a woods and surrounded by a thick hedge an ideal defensive position.
Further out forward and to the right and a little isolated from the farm was St Johns woods, an area of open woods and thick hedges, here he placed the 104th Battalion, overnight the men of the 104th improved on the natural defences that already existed here.
Colonel Willis (average) was the regimental commander, he was not known as a military genius but he was a solid and reliable commander and General Anders was convinced Colonel Willis would not let him down, it was vital that the 104th must hold here, despite the likelihood they would be outnumbered.
Because the position was a little isolated and being forward and on the extreme right of his line he believed General Fergusan would see this as a weakness and thus it would undoubtedly attract a great deal of attention from the enemy. The more enemy required to defeat the forces within the wooded enclosure improved the chances of his forces elsewhere in the line.
General Anders then heavily reinforced St Johns farm itself , in front of the farm he placed the 2nd Artillery battery, behind and in the wooded area attached to the farm he deployed the 30th Battalion (Colonel Wells – Regimental commander – Average). The battery could also cover the approaches not only to the farm but to the woods a few hundred yards to its right front.
In the farm itself was the 28th (Colonel Wells), this Battalion was in a very strong position with the farm buildings and surrounding hedges to benefit from. To the rear of St Johns farm and in reserve was the 102nd Foot (Colonel Willis) but under direct orders of General Anders.

To the left of the farm the Royalist commander ran a string of battalions, sadly most would be in open terrain. From the left of St Johns farm was the 99th Foot, 27th Foot, 26th Foot and the 1st artillery battery deployed in front of the 26h & 27th Battalions. Then to their left was the 25th foot and in a large open wooded area securing the left flank was the 1st Light Infantry, on their left covering a large open flank was the 4th dragoons.

The weakness of the line was its centre and left, the Right was strong in natural defences but the centre and left were a lot more open. By deploying the 104th so far forward on the right in St Johns wood General Anders denied the Parliamentarians the use of the woods to launch attacks on his right flank and he hoped that the 104th because of its apparent isolation would attract most of the enemies attention thus saving his left and centre.

General Ferguson studied the Royalist positions and decided he would attack in three regions, the 3 Militia Battalions (Colonel Franks – Average) supported by the 29th Foot would attack the Royalist Battalion in the woods on the right of the enemy line, the map said it was St Johns wood. By taking the woods he could then lever the Royalists out of the farm buildings of St John farm. He had deployed 4 Battalions against the single battalion defending, even though 3 of the battalions were militia he felt confident numbers with a stiffening of regulars would prevail.

Below - The battle for St johns wood
                                                              

He would push the 3rd ( Colonel Breckenridge – Good) and the 114th (Colonel Young – Average) onto the farm buildings themselves, primarily to take the battery positions and then to apply pressure on the farm until the forces that took St Johns wood arrived and attacked the farm from the right and rear.

On the Royalist left the 1st (Colonel Meadows – Poor) and 90th (Colonel Young – Average) would attack the other artillery battery and apply as much pressure as possible to pin the royalist units here, they would have in support the 2nd Battalion (also Colonel Meadows).
Out on the far right of the Royalist line was the 103rd light, facing the Royalist light battalion.

Battle commences



The Battle started at 7:30 precisely as General Ferguson ordered his artillery to concentrate their fire on the Royalist centre, the 99th Battalion, whilst in return the Royalist artillery seemed to be concentrating on the Parliamentarian 90 foot.
The artillery fire was not particularly effective for the Royalists, however the parliamentarian gunners quickly found the range and within the 30 minutes of the artillery opening fire the Royalist 99th Battalion lost 44 dead, 54 wounded and 36 missing, while in return the Parliamentarian 90th Battalion only suffered 5 dead, 6 wounded and 4 missing.
General Anders was becoming quite concerned about the lack of success of his artillery and was already promising himself he would have to concentrate more effort on improving his artillery's efficiency.

After 30 minutes of the guns opening fire the Parliamentary army began moving forward, and with much relief to General Anders but probably more so to the relief of the 99th who were doing the dying; the enemy advance masked their guns and the 99th had a breather to regather its cohesion and morale.

The Parliamentary Army prepares to advance
As the enemy line advanced the royalist artillery still concentrated their effort on the enemy 90th and now as the ranges closed they had much greater success, the 90th losing 50 dead, 60 wounded and 32 men missing in the time they reached the Royalist musketry range. The 90th were clearly visibly shaken (Morale dropped from 7 to 4),despite the casualties and the wavering of its men the 90th continued to advance.
The parliamentary artillery were limbering up in preparation of following the infantry.

Events began to unfold right along the line on the Royalist right first, the Parliamentary 29th battalion along with the 2nd & 3rd Militia advanced onto the St John woods. The 104th opened fire on the advancing battalions but to little or no effect, the enemy continued to advance, holding their fire.

The three Battalions finally opened fire moments before they charged, the fire results were as follows
29th Foot inflicts = 12 dead, 14 wounded and 8 missing
2nd Militia inflicts = 23 dead, 28 wounded and 19 missing
3rd Militia inflicts = 23 dead, 28 wounded and 19 missing
Thus in 15 minutes of firing the 104th lost 58 dead, 70 wounded and 46 missing, while they in turn concentrating their fire on the closest battalion which was the 29th they inflicted 23, dead 28 wounded and 19 missing, the 29th were visibly shaken as their morale dropped from 7 down to 2.
The 104th was also shaken by the heavy losses their own morale plummeted from 7 down to 3.5, but they remained to continue the fight and would do so throughout the battle.

General Ferguson glanced at his pocket watch, incidentally a watch one of his men had plundered in the raid on General Anders Estate, the time was 8:35am he watched as the 3 battalions plunged into the thick hedges surround the St John woods.
In the first five minutes of the melee over the hedge line the 29th lost a further 59 casualties, their morale collapsed (-1) and the men were becoming too exhausted and shaken to continue the fight much longer.
The 2nd and 3rd Militia battalions took lighter losses (they had been behind the 29th in the approach) and for now their morale was holding, together both battalions only had lost 17 dead, 21 wounded and 14 prisoners.
In the first 5 minutes of the fighting along the hedge line the 104th fighting off 3 battalions at once lost
164 casualties. The 104th Morale was low but they were holding.



The 29th battalion commander felt he had no choice but to pull his men out of the fighting over the hedges, their morale was close to total collapse. General Ferguson seeing the 29th falling back ordered the 1st Militia into the melee for the woods.

Meanwhile the advance on St Johns Farm itself was now developing into a rugged affair, this despite the orders that they were merely to pin the enemy until the forces taking the woods arrived on the enemy flanks and assisted in taking the farm.

The 3rd Parliamentary Battalion charged the guns of the Royalist 2nd Battery. Because the Royalist artillery had been so intent on inflicting as many casualties on the 90th and the fact the smoke from the guns helped mask the approach of the 3rd battalion went almost unnoticed by the 2nd Battery
Almost to late they swung their guns around to fire but not before the 3rd battalion fired on them causing 30 casualties, because of the rapidity of the 3rd battalions advance and the need to realign the 2nd Battery and being hit by musketry fire the battery's return fire was largely ineffective only causing 39 casualties on the 3rd.
The 3rd Parliamentary infantry battalion hit the guns causing 22 dead, 27 wounded and 18 taken prisoner while the battery crews and its supports fought back inflicting 13 dead, 16 wounded and 11 prisoners, it wasn’t the casualties that worried the battalion commander it was the rapid charge across the field had exhausted his men and the violence of the gun crews in defending their guns had shaken his men considerably. He would need help and soon, but according to his orders it wouldnt be arriving anytime soon.

General Anders decided to send the 102nd in to support he 2nd Battery, he also ordered the 30th to move north and assist the 104th in the St Johns wood , but they will take some 10 minutes to get there and 10 minutes in ferocious melee fighting was a long time.

Meanwhile back near St Johns farm the 114th parliamentary battalion charged the 28th Battalion which was defending the left outskirts of the farm enclosures, the hedges and trees offering good cover..
As the 114th charged towards they 28th they were hit by musketry fire causing 105 casualties. Once again the Parliamentary battalion halted and opened fire on the 28th causing 23 Dead, 28 wounded, 19 men missing. The 114th then charged into the defensive positions of the 28th Battalion in the ensuring melee the 114th lost a further 65 casualties, the melee spread along the entire northern edge of the hedge line men struggling to kill each other in absolute ferociousness, the 114th morale was holding as they battled into the woods, in the melee they inflicted on the 28th a further 29 casualties, their own morale was holding very well.

                                           The Royalist 114th fires on the 2nd Militia battalion

Further to the left of the St Johns melee the much weakened Parliamentary 90th Battalion unexpectedly halted and fired on the 27th causing 21 dead, 26 wounded, 16 men missing. The 27th returned fire inflicting 23 Dead, 28 wounded, 19 missing on the 90th. Remarkably considering the previous pounding of the artillery and now the musketry the 90th morale was holding up extremely well.
Once having fired their muskets the 90th then charged the 27th line, inflicting 12 dead, 14 wounded and 8 prisoners taken, the 27th fought back causing 21 dead, 26 wounded and 17 men taken prisoner. Following the initial charge and because of their exhaustion during the melee the 90th morale really plummeted but they continued to fight on.

On the left of this melee the parliamentary 1st battalion charged the 1st battery, again (just as with the 2nd battery) had been intent on firing on the 90th they responded too slowly to the advance of the 1st Battalion which may have also been masked by smoke. The 1st Battalion opened fire on the 1st battery just as the artillery crews were beginning to swivel their guns, the volley inflicted 35 casualties. The return fire from the battery was pathetic mainly because the musketry fire from the 1st battalion had been directed on the closest guns and as a result of the guns being temporarily unmanned they were not fired, the 1st battalion lost a mere 5 dead, 3 wounded, 2 went missing.
The melee over the guns resulted in 1st Artillery battery losing another they inflicted a further 69 casualties, the Parliamentarians lost 9 killed, 11 wounded and 9 prisoners.

General Ferguson was pleased with the way his army had advanced, the artillery was a problem in that as his army advanced they masked the enemy, but it had the advantage that now he could move his artillery up and be ready for any emergencies.
He was a little concerned with the attack on the St John woods out on his extreme left, the 4 battalion attack should have rolled over the defenders, instead one of his battalions (29th) had been repulsed and was now falling back in some disorder. The 2nd and 3rd Militia Battalions seem to be holding their own at the moment, so he had sent a dispatch rider to the 1st militia to advance and replace the 29th.

He was also a little worried about the 90th Battalion out on his right, they had taken a fearsome pounding from the Royalist artillery and despite the losses they were continuing their advance, but for how much longer. He was more than a little annoyed that their commander had closed on the enemy position before the issue in the woods had been settled.

Yes the battle was progressing well, but as he looked through the smoke to his left, he saw the 1st Militia had not yet moved, despite the dispatch rider already having returned from delivering his order. Even more worrying now was he saw the Royalists were moving to reinforce the woods.
He turned to Colonel Sorenson,
“Colonel get over to the 1st Militia and get them moving, and if their commander cant do it, relieve him and led them yourself.”

The Colonel saluted and rode of to join the first, when he got there he found the Battalion commander was missing, he had simply fled when ordered to advance.
He turned to the Battalion adjutant who was extremely worried, possibly more about how his commanders desertion would reflect on him than about his battalion.
Colonel Sorenson rode up to him,
“Major you will move your battalion as ordered or place yourself under arrest.”
The Major, visibly shaken nodded and then gave the bugler instructions to advance, Colonel Sorenson rode along side him for part of the way, ensuring the man didn’t have a sudden change of heart.

The Battle continues.
As the 1st militia battalion advanced on the woods the melee in and around its objective was taking on a level of ferociousness that many would never forget for the remainder of their lives.
Despite the fact that the attack on the woods was meant to be delivered by 4 battalions at the moment it was being made with just two militia battalions. The 2nd and 3rd Battalions were struggling to gain any ground without the support of the regulars in the 29th, attacking a defended ground such as St Johns wood was beginning to look rather daunting.
Their hearts were raised a little when word was passed that the 1st Militia had finally begun to advance and join them.

Out to the Royalist right the commander of the 3rd dragoons had seen the Parliamentary 15th Light horse move up, and then form for the charge, the 3rd dragoons were at the same instant ordered to advance and counter attack them. Whether either Regiment really intended to charge will never be made, however the threa from one or the other resulted in the fist cavalry clash of the war, it was a melee that would last almost half an hour.
The two cavalry regiments clashed together with a resounding clamour, the 3rd dragoons crashed into the 15th with a greater force and almost seemed to overwhelm the front ranks of the parliamentary cavalry regiment, in the first 5 minutes of the melee the 15th had already lost 105 men, the 3rd dragoons only suffered 35 in the same period of time.

Meanwhile way over on the Royalist left the struggle for the guns of the 1st battery was becoming a desperate affair, the 1st Parliamentary Battalion was now not only fighting the gun crews and supports but the 26th battalion which had arrived to support the battery.
The 1st lost 25 dead, 30 wounded and 20 men taken prisoner within 5 minutes of the 26th ploughing into the ranks,1st Artillery lost a further 9 men killed, 15 wounded and 4 men missing in the same 5 minutes. The 26th being fresh only lost 9 dead, 11 wounded and 8 missing in their first taste of the melee.
The 1st Parliamentary battalion was down to 493 men, it was severely shaken and exhausted for the moment it was beyond advancing, it was all it could do to stay and fight.
The Royalist gun crews were equally suffering having now only 152 men left and they were abandoning their guns and drifting to the rear, their morale well and truly shaken .

To the right of the duel over the 1st battery guns was another large brawl taking place, this time by the much battered 90th battalion and the 27th royalist battalion. The 90th had lost another 88 men in the rest period of the melee. In total the Battalion had lost 520 men since the beginning of the battle and all of a sudden and not surprisingly its morale finally broke and the 1st routed of the field of battle. The Royalist 27th Battalion that it had been fighting was itself exhausted, in the last stages of the melee it had suffered 27 further casualties, for the moment the battalion needed time to reorganise and gather breath. It was still quite strong having 584 men still in its ranks.

To the right and on the left side of St Johns farm the struggle between the Parliamentary 114th battalion and the Royalist 28th continued. The 114th was quite shaken and its low morale obvious but despite that it continued to fight over and through the hedges on the left of the farm.
In the recent rounds of melee it lost 18 dead, 22 wounded and 15 men taken prisoner, it inflicted on the 28th 15 dead, 19 wounded 10 men missing.
The biggest issue was that the 114th seemed close to breaking as well, but there was no way for them to disengage so the struggle continued for them.

Interestingly the orders General Anders gave to his gunners of the 2nd battery was that when it became imminent they were going to be overrun, the gunners were to seek refuge in St Johns farm which was defended by the 30th, but instead of fleeing the gunners stayed and fought, they had done so well that General Anders brought the 102nd up to support them and moved the 30th out to the woods on the right. But the struggle for the guns of the 2nd battery continued with great intensity.
The 3rd parliamentary battalion suffered a further 45 casualties in the recent struggles, the battery lost 19 men and the newly arrived Royalist 102nd lost 16 men, again the signs were evident the parliamentary forces were showing signs of weakening, and yet again despite the losses and exhaustion they continued to fight. Not a little of the this improved resolve of the 3rd was because General Ferguson rode up to the melee and was encouraging and exhorting his men to greater effort, urging them to stay and fight on, the 3rd responded to General Ferguson’s urgings with renewed vigour, but sadly the general was struck in the head by a musket ball and fell unconscious from his horse, though badly wounded he would live and his staff and a few men from the militia struggled back to the rear with him draped over his horse.
Command of the battle now fell on Colonel Sorenson, and he was not a happy man. He had always wanted the command of the army, but he was now being given command at just the time it seemed his new command may be on the verge of breaking, and if it did it he knew the General would blame him for the loss. He even pondered to himself that the General was the luckier of the two of them, a bad wound to the head or the disgrace from losing the first real battle of the war, which was to be the worst.

However for now the Colonel was concerned about the struggle for St Johns wood, that entire attack was doomed to fail even before it began. He had pleaded with the General to use regular battalions, but the General demanded the be included in the attack, these militiamen were from his own county and they would not fail him, what was it he called them, “The Romney Lions”. Well to the Colonel they looked more like the Romney whales they way they were floundering around the hedges and woods.


The struggle for St Johns wood showed no signs of lessening, the Parliament forces were reinforced by the arrival of the 1st Militia Battalion The men of the Royalist 104th defending the woods were heartened to hear the 30th was on their way to join them but it would be another 10 minutes before they arrived, so for those 10 minutes the 104th was once more battling 3 battalions. The only bright signs for the 104th was they were fighting militia and the fight didn’t have the same intensity as it would have had if they were fighting regulars. However as captain Clem Harrington said to his men during the battle
“Don’t under estimate those boys over there, a militia bayonet will do just as much harm as one thrust by a regular”.
For those 10 long minutes the battle for St Johns wood continued, the 104th lost a further 131 men by the time the 30th arrived the 104th had a total 162 men left out of 700 and they were exhausted.
They had in their last efforts before the arrival of the 30th inflicted a further 87 casualties on the 3 militia battalions and both the 2nd and 3rd battalions were almost as exhausted as the 104th itself.
The Militia regimental commander had fought alongside his men throughout the entire struggle he was yelling and demanding more from his men, they were totally devoted to him and rallied their morale and tried to battle on.

Further out to the right the cavalry battle between the Parliamentary 15th Light horse and the 3rd dragoons continued. The 15th overcome their initial shock and heavy losses and in the recent struggles they had evened the score a little by inflicting 60 casualties on the 3rd dragoons while the 3rd only inflicted 33 back on the Light Horse.

It was now 9:15 am the battle had been going on for almost two hours and it was obvious to all the intensity of the fighting was lessening, both sides were becoming exhausted and demoralised. Sooner or later one of these armies would break.

The next rout occurred a few minutes after Colonel Sorenson had taken command, it was over on the Royalist left, where the 1st Parliamentary battalion was fighting with the newly arrived Royalist 26th Battalion. In the period of not more than 5 minutes the 1st battalion went from the joy of seeing the gun crews falling back from the guns to losing 66 casualties as the 26th counter attacked, they struggled briefly with the 26th inflicting 25 casualties on the battalion, but the additional losses on top of all those it had suffered caused their morale to break and they too routed from the battle.

                                          1st Parliamentary battalion advances on the Royalist 26th                   

With first the routing of the 90th and now the 1st breaking the entire parliamentary attack on their right had collapsed. But the suffering continued for both armies.

Where the 90th had broken about 10 minutes ago, its opponents the Royalist 27th were too exhausted to pursue so their commander began to reorganise them, but with the disappearance of the 90th masking the guns the 1st Parliamentary Battery once again had a clear target and opened fire on the 27th inflicting 30 casualties on the battalion, the Battalion now under artillery fire was showing signs of wavering and it took itself back from the front line, badly shaken but still in order.

The Parliamentary 114th battalion was on the verge of breaking as well, its battalion commander had tried to disengage from the enemy but the Royalist 28th Battalion simply wouldn’t let them go and even advanced out off the hedges and woods of St John farm to keep the melee going. In this new round the 114th lost a further 50 casualties whilst causing 23 on the 28th battalion. However these 50 extra casualties were the cause of the next rout in the parliamentary army, the 114th simply had enough when it routed, it had 358 men left in its ranks having suffered almost 50% losses.

Without an enemy near them the men of the Royalist 2nd battery tried to reorganise their battery, but they came under fire from the 2nd Parliamentary battery suffering 30 casualties, the crews simply decided they were to weak, to effectively man the guns, there were only 105 men out of the 300 they started the battle with, they finally abandoned their guns and sought the shelter of the farm, something they should have done an hour and half earlier.

The battle for St Johns wood was over, the Regimental commander of the 3 militia battalions had seen the routs of the regulars and he could see his own men were close to breaking, they were still quite strong in numbers, but their morale was extremely close to breaking point and to continue the struggle would be futile. The men needed rest and a chance to reorganise.
Out on the extreme Royalist right the struggle between the two cavalry regiments continued, the 3rd dragoons had suffered 194 casualties and the 15th Light horse 156.

In the next round of fighting the 15th LH inflicted a further 27 casualties on the 3rd dragoons while the 15th lost 76 men. The further losses were for the 15th the point where their commander decided he had to break off or risk losing his regiment in a rout, so it was not too difficult to break away from the 3rd dragoons who themselves were exhausted after 20 minutes of heavy fighting.

At this stage a starnge calm came of a scene that had been for two hours a place of mayhem, neither side had the stamina to continue the battle.
The Parliamentarians had 3 Battalions that had routed and it would be a week before they reformed, several more of the units within the army were shattered and extremely weak. The cohesion of the army was at the moment at the point of breaking, but time would heal that and within a few days the army would be reorganised, but to what level of efficiency would only be seen in later struggles.

The Royalists though not having any units routed were extremely lucky not to have done so, several of their units were so shattered they had simply walked back away from the fight, others were so weak that another 30 minutes of fighting would have seen them break.

The battle only lasting 2 hours perhaps was nothing more than a skirmish in the annuls of military history, the casualties were however quite severe, out of a force of 9,000 men the parliamentarians suffered 580 killed, 706 wounded and 471 prisoners or missing. Of the wounded 528 will return to the colours over the next 3 weeks

The Royalists suffered slightly more heavier, out of a force of 8,300 men, they had 539 killed, 657 wounded and 437 prisoners or missing. Of the Royalist wounded 492 will rejoin the army in the next 3 weeks.

Post battle
Colonel Sorenson pulled the army back behind the guns, he ordered his staff to ensure the battalions quickly re-organised as he was keen to renew the battle as soon as his army had gathered some cohesion, but when he was reminded that he was already minus the 3 Battalions that had routed he soon decided it was fruitless to attack and unless General Anders would oblige by launching an attack there was little to do but pull back.

So he started sending his worse units back to the Cadmans bridge area, he was confident he could stop the royalists there at least until he had new orders or was reinforced. Meanwhile the rear guard waited for a royalist response.

General Anders was shocked at how badly his artillery came out of the battle, he didn’t even have enough crews to man fully man 1 battery. Though no units routed some were so weakened by the battle it was possible they would have to be amalgamated with others, for example the 104th Foot only had 162 men remaining with the colours, 162 out of 700.
A pursuit was out of order at the moment, the best he could manage would be a follow up, but given a 25 hour period of grace his army would be ready for battle once again, though it lacked any effective artillery.

By late afternoon the Parliamentary army had abandoned the battlefield of Tywnford, bu next morning they were holding a bridgehead at Cadmans bridge.